Indispensable to compliance with the guidelines prescribed in the Istanbul Protocol is an understanding that “the absence of…physical evidence should not be construed to suggest that torture did not occur, since such acts of violence against persons frequently leave no marks or permanent scars.” As a matter of fact, survivors of torture and/or ill-treatment often to not have physical evidence of torture as most lesions heal in approximately 6 weeks. As stated in the Istanbul Protocol, “a detailed account of the patient’s observations of acute lesions and the subsequent healing process often represent an important source of evidence in corroborating specific allegations of torture or ill-treatment.” (IP, §171) Physical manifestations of torture may involve all organ systems. Some effects are typically acute while other may be chronic. Symptoms and physical findings will vary in a given organ system over time, though psychosomatic and neurologic symptoms are typically chronic findings. Musculoskeletal symptoms are commonly present in both acute and chronic phases. A particular method of torture, its severity, and the anatomical location of injury often indicate the likelihood of specific physical findings. For example:
- Beating the soles of the feet (falanga) may result in subcutaneous fibrosis and a compartment syndrome of the feet.
- The use of electricity and various methods of burning may also leave highly characteristic skin changes.
- Whipping may also produce a highly characteristic pattern of scars.
- Different forms of body suspension and stretching of limbs may result in characteristic musculoskeletal and nerve injuries.
- Other forms of torture may not produce physical findings, but are strongly associated with other conditions. For example, beatings to the head that result in loss of consciousness are particularly important to the clinical diagnosis of organic brain dysfunction. Also, trauma to the genitals is often associated with subsequent sexual dysfunction.
Before conducting the physical examination, the Istanbul Protocol states that health professionals should interview individuals in an effort to compile background information, asking individuals to describe both acute and chronic symptoms and/disabilities. Health professionals should ask examinees about any injuries resulting from the alleged abuse, documenting instances where the examinees’ ability to describe injuries may be compromised by any after-effects of the torture. Typical acute symptoms include bleeding, bruising, burns from cigarettes, heated instruments or electricity, musculoskeletal pain, numbness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Some common chronic systems are headache, back pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and muscle pain. In addition, many alleged victims suffer from chronic psychological effects, which can include depression, anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, flashbacks, and memory difficulties. Physicians should inquire about the intensity, frequency, as well as duration of each reported symptom.
After gathering background information, forensic experts should conduct a physical examination looking for findings or the lack of them that correlate with the allegations of torture and/or ill-treatment.In general, these examinations include an assessment of the following organs or systems: a) skin, b) face, c) chest and abdomen, d) musculoskeletal system, e) genitourinary system, and f) central and peripheral nervous system. The examiner should note all pertinent positive and negative findings, using body diagrams and photographs to record the location and nature of all injuries. Although genital exams can provide crucial corroborating evidence, these are to be performed only with the alleged victim’s consent. In the case that the physician differs in gender from the alleged victim, a chaperone must be present in the examination room. While diagnostic tests are not an essential part of the clinical assessment, there are some circumstances in which such tests may provide valuable supporting evidence.