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Other Definitions

The World Medical Association’s Declaration of Tokyo (1975), which proscribes physician involvement in torture, uses a briefer, less legalistic definition which omits the element of severity of suffering but which otherwise embodies the elements of torture cited above.

[Torture is] the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting along or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.

— [Preamble.]